ectomycorrhiza, rhizosphere, Tricholoma, Picea, soil bacteria,
Communication is essential for all interactions, which is true not only within a species, but holds true even across species, kingdom and domain borders. The network of interactions based on exchange of chemical signal molecules involves mutualistic, pathogenic and commensal interactions. The symbiosis of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes with their host demands co-evolved, complex communication cascades including signaling at different stages of forming the interaction. Early signaling events, before physical contact is achieved, are well studied in arbuscular mycorrhiza, but only partially analyzed in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. However, additional signaling is needed for interactions within the influence rhizosphere, where other microorganisms may modulate the mutual symbiosis. Such signals released by the ambient microbiota has received little attention so far.