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mitogen-activated protein kinases, calcium-dependent protein kinases, kinase signaling, MAPK cascade, phytohormones, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, Nicotiana attenuata, plant defense, growth regulation
Plants evolved sophisticated strategies to defend themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses. Highly complex signaling networks control these defense responses. Within these networks, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play essential roles. In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge on protein kinases in plant growth and defense.